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Aaron Kosatern

241 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 241 days ago
A pterygium is a pinkish, triangular tissue growth on the cornea of the eye.[2] It typically starts on the cornea near the nose.[3] It may slowly grow but rarely grows so large that the pupil is covered.[2] Often both eyes are involved.[5]
The cause is unclear.[2] It appears to be partly related to long term exposure to UV light and dust.[2][3] Genetic factors also appear to be involved.[4] It is a benign growth.[6] Other conditions that can look similar include a pinguecula, tumor, or Terrien's marginal corneal degeneration.[5]
Prevention may include wearing sunglasses and a hat if in an area with strong sunlight. Among those with the condition, an eye lubricant can help with symptoms. Surgical removal is typically only recommended if the ability to see is affected.[2]Following surgery a pterygium may recur in around half of cases.[2][6]
The frequency of the condition varies from 1% to 33% in various regions of the world. It occurs more commonly among males than females and in people who live closer to the equator. The condition becomes more common with age.[7] The condition has been described since at least 1000 BC.[8]
233 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 233 days ago
Aaron K {{Infobox medical condition
 |Name           = Hives
 |Image          = EMminor2010.JPG
 |Caption        = Hives on the arm
 |Field          = [[Dermatology]]
 |width         = 250px
 |DiseasesDB     = 13606
 |ICD10          = {{ICD10|L|50| |l|50}}
 |ICD9           = {{ICD9|708}}
 |ICDO           = 
 |OMIM           = 
 |MedlinePlus    = 000845
 |eMedicineSubj  = search
 |eMedicineTopic = Urticaria
 |MeshID         = D014581
<!-- Definition and symptoms -->
'''Hives''' also known as '''urticaria''', is a kind of [[skin rash]] with red, raised, itchy bumps.<ref name=NIH2016>{{cite web|title=Hives|url=https://medlineplus.gov/hives.html|accessdate=10 August 2016}}</ref> They may also burn or sting.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Often the patches of rash move around.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Typically they last a few days and do not leave any long lasting skin changes.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Less than 5% of cases last for more than six weeks.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> The condition frequently recurs.<ref name=Jaf2015>{{cite journal|last1=Jafilan|first1=L|last2=James|first2=C|title=Urticaria and Allergy-Mediated Conditions.|journal=Primary care|date=December 2015|volume=42|issue=4|pages=473-83|pmid=26612369}}</ref>
<!-- Cause and diagnosis -->
Hives frequently occur following an infection or as a result of an [[allergic reaction]] such as to medication, [[insect bite]]s, or food.<ref name=Jaf2015/> [[Psychological stress]], cold temperature, or vibration may also be a trigger.<ref name=NIH2016/><ref name=Jaf2015/> In half of cases the cause remains unknown.<ref name=Jaf2015/> Risk factors include having conditions such as [[hay fever]] or [[asthma]].<ref>{{cite book|last1=Zuberbier|first1=Torsten|last2=Grattan|first2=Clive|last3=Maurer|first3=Marcus|title=Urticaria and Angioedema|date=2010|publisher=Springer Science & Business Media|isbn=9783540790488|page=38|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=kzWdXE4VsfsC&pg=PA38|language=en}}</ref> Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/ -->> [[Patch testing]] may be useful to determine the allergy.<ref name=Jaf2015/>
<!-- Prevention and treatment -->
Prevention is by avoiding whatever it is that causes the condition.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Treatment is typically with [[antihistamines]] such as [[diphenhydramine]] and [[ranitidine]].<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> In severe cases [[corticosteroids|steroids]] or [[leukotriene inhibitors]] may also be used.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Keeping the environmental temperature cool is also useful.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> For cases that last more than six weeks [[immunosuppressants]] like [[cyclosporine]] may be used.<ref name=Jaf2015/>
<!-- Epidemiology and culture -->
About 20% of people are affected.<ref name=Jaf2015/> Cases of short duration occur equally in males and females while cases of long duration are more common in females.<!-- <ref name=Gri2016/> --> Cases of short duration or more common among children while cases of long duration are more common among those who are middle aged.<!-- <ref name=Gri2016/> --> Hives have been described at least since the time of [[Hippocrates]].<ref name=Gri2016>{{cite book|last1=Griffiths|first1=Christopher|last2=Barker|first2=Jonathan|last3=Bleiker|first3=Tanya|last4=Chalmers|first4=Robert|last5=Creamer|first5=Daniel|title=Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, 4 Volume Set|date=2016|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9781118441176|page=Chapter 42.3|edition=9|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=EyypCwAAQBAJ&pg=SA42-PA3|language=en}}</ref> The term urticaria is from the [[Latin]] ''urtica'' meaning "nettle".<ref>{{cite book|title=A Dictionary of Entomology|date=2011|publisher=CABI|isbn=9781845935429|page=1430|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=9IcmCeAjp6cC&pg=PA1430|language=en}}</ref>
<references />
241 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 241 days ago
維他命C Vitamin C
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent scurvy.[1] Evidence does not support use in the general population for the prevention of the common cold.[2][3] It may be taken by mouth or used by injection.[1]
It is generally well tolerated.[1] Large doses may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.[3][1] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[4]Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue.[1] Foods that contain vitamin C include citrus fruit, tomatoes, and potatoes.[2]
Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and first made in 1933.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[6] Vitamin C is avaliable as a generic medication and over the counter.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.19 to 0.54 USD per month.[7] In some countries ascorbic acid may be added to foods such as breakfast cereal.[2]
233 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 233 days ago
角膜刮傷Corneal abrasion
Aaron K {{Infobox medical condition (new)
| name            = Corneal abrasion
| image           = Human cornea with abrasion highlighted by fluorescein staining.jpg
| caption         = A corneal abrasion after staining with [[fluorescein]].
| symptoms        = eye pain, [[light sensitivity]]<ref name=Fah2015/>
| onset           = rapid<ref>{{cite book|last1=FNP-C|first1=Maria T. Codina Leik, MSN, APRN, BC|title=Family Nurse Practitioner Certification Intensive Review: Fast Facts and Practice Questions, Second Edition|date=2013|publisher=Springer Publishing Company|isbn=9780826134257|page=112|edition=2|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=sAwmPqZ4YjIC&pg=PA112|language=en}}</ref>
| duration        = less than 3 days<ref name=Fah2015/>
| causes          = minor trauma, contact len use<ref name=Fah2015/> 
| risks           = 
| diagnosis       = [[slit lamp]] exam<ref name=Fah2015/> 
| differential    = [[corneal ulcer]], [[globe rupture]]<ref name=Fah2015/>
| prevention      = [[eye protection]]<ref name=Fah2015/>
| treatment       =
| medication      =
| frequency       = 3 per 1,000 per year (United States)<ref name=Fah2015/>
| deaths          = 
<!-- Definition and symptoms -->
'''Corneal abrasion''' is a scratch to the surface of the [[cornea]] of the [[eye]].<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=2016-11-06|title=Corneal Abrasion |publisher=National Eye Institute|url=https://nei.nih.gov/faqs/cornea-corneal-abrasion|website=nei.nih.gov}}</ref> Symptoms include pain, redness, [[light sensitivity]], and a feeling like a [[foreign body]] is in the eye.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Most people recover completely within three days.<ref name=Fah2015/>
<!-- Cause and diagnosis -->
Most cases are due to minor trauma to the eye such as that which can occur with [[contact lens]] use or from fingernails.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> About 25% of cases occur at work.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Diagnosis is often by [[slit lamp]] examination after [[fluorescein dye]] has been applied.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> More significant injuries like a corneal ulcer, [[globe rupture]], [[recurrent erosion syndrome]], and a [[foreign body]] within the eye should be ruled out.<ref name=Fah2015>{{cite journal|first1=Faheem|last1=Ahmed|first2=Robert James|last2=House|first3=Brad Hal|last3=Feldman|title=Corneal Abrasions and Corneal Foreign Bodies|journal=Primary Care|date=1 September 2015|issn=1558-299X|pages=363–375|volume=42|issue=3|pmid=26319343|doi=10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.004}}</ref>
<!-- Prevention and treatment -->
Prevention includes the use of [[eye protection]].<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Treatment is typically with [[antibiotic]] ointment.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> In those who wear contact lenses a [[fluoroquinolone]] antibiotic is often recommended.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> [[Paracetamol]] (acetaminophen), [[NSAIDs]], and eye drops such as [[cyclopentolate]] that [[paralysis the pupil]] can help with pain.<ref name=Fah2015/> Evidence does not support the usefulness of [[eye patching]] for those with simple abrasions.<ref name=Lim2016>{{cite journal|last1=Lim|first1=CH|last2=Turner|first2=A|last3=Lim|first3=BX|title=Patching for corneal abrasion.|journal=The Cochrane database of systematic reviews|date=26 July 2016|volume=7|pages=CD004764|pmid=27457359}}</ref> 
<!-- Epidemiology and prognosis -->
About 3 per 1,000 people are affected a year in the United States.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Males are more often affected than females.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> The typical age group affected is those in their 20s and 30s.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Complications can include [[bacterial keratitis]], [[corneal ulcer]], and [[iritis]].<ref name=Fah2015/> Complications may occur in up to 8% of people.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Smolin|first1=Gilbert|last2=Foster|first2=Charles Stephen|last3=Azar|first3=Dimitri T.|last4=Dohlman|first4=Claes H.|title=Smolin and Thoft's The Cornea: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Practice|date=2005|publisher=Lippincott Williams & Wilkins|isbn=9780781742061|page=798|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=93s6aes5ob0C&pg=PA798|language=en}}</ref>
<references />
229 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 229 days ago
  • 校對審定
---  我是計數線 43 新增條目5/1號後到置頂處Google 文件新增翻譯檔案,放到新的資料夾中---
230 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 230 days ago
常見副作用包和心、嘔吐、腹瀉,以及疲憊。嚴重副作用則包含[[長QT症]]、{{le|心阻斷|Heart block}}、[[高脂血症]],以及肝臟問題。妊娠期間用藥目前顯示安全。本藥物屬於[[蛋白酶抑制劑]],可抑制{{le|HIV蛋白酶|HIV protease}}的作用[1]。

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