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Aaron Kosatern

4 hours ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 4 hours ago
常見副作用包和心、嘔吐、腹瀉,以及疲憊。嚴重副作用則包含[[長QT症]]、{{le|心阻斷|Heart block}}、[[高脂血症]],以及肝臟問題。妊娠期間用藥目前顯示安全。本藥物屬於[[蛋白酶抑制劑]],可抑制{{le|HIV蛋白酶|HIV protease}}的作用[1]。
 
3 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 3 days ago
角膜刮傷Corneal abrasion
 
Aaron K {{Infobox medical condition (new)
| name            = Corneal abrasion
| image           = Human cornea with abrasion highlighted by fluorescein staining.jpg
| caption         = A corneal abrasion after staining with [[fluorescein]].
| symptoms        = eye pain, [[light sensitivity]]<ref name=Fah2015/>
| onset           = rapid<ref>{{cite book|last1=FNP-C|first1=Maria T. Codina Leik, MSN, APRN, BC|title=Family Nurse Practitioner Certification Intensive Review: Fast Facts and Practice Questions, Second Edition|date=2013|publisher=Springer Publishing Company|isbn=9780826134257|page=112|edition=2|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=sAwmPqZ4YjIC&pg=PA112|language=en}}</ref>
| duration        = less than 3 days<ref name=Fah2015/>
| causes          = minor trauma, contact len use<ref name=Fah2015/> 
| risks           = 
| diagnosis       = [[slit lamp]] exam<ref name=Fah2015/> 
| differential    = [[corneal ulcer]], [[globe rupture]]<ref name=Fah2015/>
| prevention      = [[eye protection]]<ref name=Fah2015/>
| treatment       =
| medication      =
| frequency       = 3 per 1,000 per year (United States)<ref name=Fah2015/>
| deaths          = 
}}
 
<!-- Definition and symptoms -->
'''Corneal abrasion''' is a scratch to the surface of the [[cornea]] of the [[eye]].<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=2016-11-06|title=Corneal Abrasion |publisher=National Eye Institute|url=https://nei.nih.gov/faqs/cornea-corneal-abrasion|website=nei.nih.gov}}</ref> Symptoms include pain, redness, [[light sensitivity]], and a feeling like a [[foreign body]] is in the eye.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Most people recover completely within three days.<ref name=Fah2015/>
 
<!-- Cause and diagnosis -->
Most cases are due to minor trauma to the eye such as that which can occur with [[contact lens]] use or from fingernails.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> About 25% of cases occur at work.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Diagnosis is often by [[slit lamp]] examination after [[fluorescein dye]] has been applied.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> More significant injuries like a corneal ulcer, [[globe rupture]], [[recurrent erosion syndrome]], and a [[foreign body]] within the eye should be ruled out.<ref name=Fah2015>{{cite journal|first1=Faheem|last1=Ahmed|first2=Robert James|last2=House|first3=Brad Hal|last3=Feldman|title=Corneal Abrasions and Corneal Foreign Bodies|journal=Primary Care|date=1 September 2015|issn=1558-299X|pages=363–375|volume=42|issue=3|pmid=26319343|doi=10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.004}}</ref>
 
<!-- Prevention and treatment -->
Prevention includes the use of [[eye protection]].<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Treatment is typically with [[antibiotic]] ointment.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> In those who wear contact lenses a [[fluoroquinolone]] antibiotic is often recommended.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> [[Paracetamol]] (acetaminophen), [[NSAIDs]], and eye drops such as [[cyclopentolate]] that [[paralysis the pupil]] can help with pain.<ref name=Fah2015/> Evidence does not support the usefulness of [[eye patching]] for those with simple abrasions.<ref name=Lim2016>{{cite journal|last1=Lim|first1=CH|last2=Turner|first2=A|last3=Lim|first3=BX|title=Patching for corneal abrasion.|journal=The Cochrane database of systematic reviews|date=26 July 2016|volume=7|pages=CD004764|pmid=27457359}}</ref> 
 
<!-- Epidemiology and prognosis -->
About 3 per 1,000 people are affected a year in the United States.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Males are more often affected than females.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> The typical age group affected is those in their 20s and 30s.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Complications can include [[bacterial keratitis]], [[corneal ulcer]], and [[iritis]].<ref name=Fah2015/> Complications may occur in up to 8% of people.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Smolin|first1=Gilbert|last2=Foster|first2=Charles Stephen|last3=Azar|first3=Dimitri T.|last4=Dohlman|first4=Claes H.|title=Smolin and Thoft's The Cornea: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Practice|date=2005|publisher=Lippincott Williams & Wilkins|isbn=9780781742061|page=798|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=93s6aes5ob0C&pg=PA798|language=en}}</ref>
 
==References==
<references />
 
11 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 11 days ago
維他命C Vitamin C
 
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent scurvy.[1] Evidence does not support use in the general population for the prevention of the common cold.[2][3] It may be taken by mouth or used by injection.[1]
 
 
It is generally well tolerated.[1] Large doses may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.[3][1] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[4]Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue.[1] Foods that contain vitamin C include citrus fruit, tomatoes, and potatoes.[2]
 
 
Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and first made in 1933.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[6] Vitamin C is avaliable as a generic medication and over the counter.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.19 to 0.54 USD per month.[7] In some countries ascorbic acid may be added to foods such as breakfast cereal.[2]
 
11 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 11 days ago
威廉氏症候群Williams syndrome
 
 
Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body.[4] Facial features frequently include a broad forehead, short nose, and full cheeks, an appearance which has been described as "elfin".[4][3] Mild to moderate intellectual disability with particular problems with visual spatial tasks such as drawing and less problems with language are typical.[4] Those affected often have an outgoing personality and interact readily with strangers.[4][3] Problems with teeth, heart problems, especially supravalvular aortic stenosis, and periods of high blood calcium are common.[4][2]
 
 
Williams syndrome is caused by a genetic problem, specifically a deletion of about 27 genes from the long arm of chromosome 7.[3][4] Typically this occurs as a random event during the formation of the egg or sperm from which a person develops. In a small number of cases it is inherited from an affected parents in an autosomal dominant manner. The different characteristic features have been linked to the loss of specific genes.[4] The diagnosis is typically suspected based on symptoms and confirmed by genetic testing.[2]
 
 
Treatment includes special education programs and various types of therapy. Surgery may be done to correct heart problems. Dietary changes or medications may be required for high blood calcium.[2] The syndrome was first described in 1961 by New Zealander John C. P. Williams.[5][6] Williams syndrome affects between 1 in 7,500 to 1 in 20,000 people at birth.[3] Life expectancy is less than that of the general population mostly due to the increased rates of heart disease.[7]
 
11 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 11 days ago
翼狀贅肉Pterygium
 
A pterygium is a pinkish, triangular tissue growth on the cornea of the eye.[2] It typically starts on the cornea near the nose.[3] It may slowly grow but rarely grows so large that the pupil is covered.[2] Often both eyes are involved.[5]
 
The cause is unclear.[2] It appears to be partly related to long term exposure to UV light and dust.[2][3] Genetic factors also appear to be involved.[4] It is a benign growth.[6] Other conditions that can look similar include a pinguecula, tumor, or Terrien's marginal corneal degeneration.[5]
 
Prevention may include wearing sunglasses and a hat if in an area with strong sunlight. Among those with the condition, an eye lubricant can help with symptoms. Surgical removal is typically only recommended if the ability to see is affected.[2]Following surgery a pterygium may recur in around half of cases.[2][6]
 
 
The frequency of the condition varies from 1% to 33% in various regions of the world. It occurs more commonly among males than females and in people who live closer to the equator. The condition becomes more common with age.[7] The condition has been described since at least 1000 BC.[8]
 
11 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 11 days ago
Aaron K 便秘係指因糞便會太硬或是太乾而排便不順或難以排出[2],正常排便的頻率約在每日三次到每週三次之間[3],便秘的併發症包含痔瘡、肛裂、糞便阻塞。
 

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