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yijuamychen

18 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by yijuamychen 18 days ago
計算性交的時間點讓精子和卵子無法相遇,或是改變性交的方式,避免讓精子進入女性生殖系統中,皆屬於行為避孕法。若正確使用行為避孕法,第一年失敗率約3.4%,但若無法正確使用,第一年失敗率可能高達85%。
 
Fertility awareness methods involve determining the most fertile days of the menstrual cycle and avoiding unprotected intercourse.[77]Techniques for determining fertility include monitoring basal body temperature, cervical secretions, or the day of the cycle.[77] They have typical first-year failure rates of 24%; perfect use first-year failure rates depend on which method is used and range from 0.4% to 5%.[21]The evidence on which these estimates are based, however, is poor as the majority of people in trials stop their use early.[77] Globally, they are used by about 3.6% of couples.[79] If based on both basal body temperature and another primary sign, the method is referred to as symptothermal. Overall first-year failure rates of <2% to 20% have been reported in clinical studies of the symptothermal method.[80][81]
 
yijuamychen 排卵期避孕法是避開在生理週期中最容易受孕的日子進行無避孕措施的性行為,方法像是監控基礎體溫、子宮頸黏液、還有生理週期日子等等。當典型使用排卵期避孕法時,第一年失敗率為24%。若是完美使用排卵期避孕法,不同避孕法的第一年失敗率約在0.4%到5%之間。不過在排卵期避孕法的相關研究中,大部分受試人都提早終止使用排卵期避孕法,因此相關研究的統計數字的可信度很低。全世界使用排卵期避孕法的伴侶約有3.6%。若單純使用基礎體溫以及其他排卵相關徵狀作為避孕的依據,則稱為徵狀基礎體溫法。臨床研究指出,徵狀基礎體溫法的第一年失敗率約在小於2%到20%之間。
 
Withdrawal 體外射精法
 
The withdrawal method (also known as coitus interruptus) is the practice of ending intercourse ("pulling out") before ejaculation.[82] The main risk of the withdrawal method is that the man may not perform the maneuver correctly or in a timely manner.[82] First-year failure rates vary from 4% with perfect usage to 22% with typical usage.[21] It is not considered birth control by some medical professionals.[27]
There is little data regarding the sperm content of pre-ejaculatory fluid.[83] While some tentative research did not find sperm,[83] one trial found sperm present in 10 out of 27 volunteers.[84] The withdrawal method is used as birth control by about 3% of couples.[79]
 
體外射精法又稱之為性交中斷法,是在射精之前停止性交(拔出)的避孕法。這個避孕法最大的風險是男性可能無法正確的使用此方法,或是無法在正確的時間點拔出。第一年失敗率的範圍可以從完美使用的4%到典型使用的22%。對於一些醫療專業人員而言,體外射精法不屬於避孕的一種。
探討精液中的精子含量的相關研究很少。有些嘗試性的研究指出精液中不存在精子,但在一項研究中卻發現在27名自願受試者中,有10位受試者的精液中存在精子。約有3%的伴侶是使用體外射精法進行避孕。
 
禁慾 Abstinence
 
Though some groups advocate total sexual abstinence, by which they mean the avoidance of all sexual activity, in the context of birth control the term usually means abstinence from vaginal intercourse.[85][86] Abstinence is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy; however, not everyone who intends to be abstinent refrains from all sexual activity, and in many populations there is a significant risk of pregnancy from nonconsensual sex (非自願性性行為).[87][88]
 
雖然有些組織提倡完全{{le|禁慾 (性行為)|sexual abstinence|禁慾}}也就是禁止各種類型的性行為,但在避孕的定義下,禁慾是指不進行陰道性行為[78][79]。禁慾可以百分之百有效的避免懷孕,但不是所有想要禁慾的人都會停止各式各樣的性行為。而許多族群中,非自願性性行為則導致了相當高比例的懷孕[80][81]。
 
Abstinence-only sex education does not reduce teenage pregnancy.[7][89] Teen pregnancy rates are higher in students given abstinence-only education, as compared with comprehensive sex education.[89][90] Some authorities recommend that those using abstinence as a primary method have backup method(s) available (such as condoms or emergency contraceptive pills).[91] Deliberate non-penetrative sex without vaginal sex or deliberate oral sex without vaginal sex are also sometimes considered birth control.[92]While this generally avoids pregnancy, pregnancy can still occur with intercrural sex and other forms of penis-near-vagina sex (genital rubbing, and the penis exiting from anal intercourse) where sperm can be deposited near the entrance to the vagina and can travel along the vagina's lubricating fluids.[93][94]
 
單單只強調[[禁慾 (性行為)|守貞]]([[純潔教育]])的性教育無法降低[[未成年懷孕]]的比例[7][89]。相較於接受完整性教育的學生只接受純潔教育的學生懷孕率更高[89][90]。有些專家建議,使用禁慾為主要避孕方式則須有備用的避孕方案(例如保險套或是事後避孕藥)[91]。謹慎的進行不包含陰道性交的[[非插入式性行為]]或是[[口交]]],有時也被認為是一種避孕的方式[85]。雖然這些方法通常能防止懷孕,[[股間性]]或是其他陰莖接近陰道的性行為(例如性器磨擦、或是[[肛交]]後將陰莖拔出)還是可能會導致懷孕。這些行為精子接近陰道口,透過陰道分泌的潤滑液游入陰道,因此仍有懷孕的風險[86][87]。
 

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