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Krystal H.C.

121 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 121 days ago
A pterygium is a pinkish, triangular tissue growth on the cornea of the eye.[2] It typically starts on the cornea near the nose.[3] It may slowly grow but rarely grows so large that the pupil is covered.[2] Often both eyes are involved.[5]
 
Krystal H 翼狀贅肉係指一種粉紅色的三角形組織生長於[[眼角膜]]之上[2] ,通常始於靠近鼻樑那一側的眼角膜[3] ,翼狀贅肉生長極慢且常見於雙眼[5],但通常不會長得大到足以遮蔽[[瞳孔]][2]
 
The cause is unclear.[2] It appears to be partly related to long term exposure to UV light and dust.[2][3] Genetic factors also appear to be involved.[4] It is a benign growth.[6] Other conditions that can look similar include a pinguecula, tumor, or Terrien's marginal corneal degeneration.[5]
 
翼狀贅肉乃是一種[[良性腫瘤]][6] ,其成因尚不明朗[2],部分可能是因為長期暴露在[[紫外線]]及風沙中[2][3],也可能是[[基因]]上的因素所引起的[4];翼狀贅肉的其他徵狀包含看似[[翼狀胬肉]]、腫瘤、或Terrien's marginal corneal degeneration[5]
 
Prevention may include wearing sunglasses and a hat if in an area with strong sunlight. Among those with the condition, an eye lubricant can help with symptoms. Surgical removal is typically only recommended if the ability to see is affected.[2]Following surgery a pterygium may recur in around half of cases.[2][6]
 
預防翼狀贅肉的方法包含在日照強烈的地方戴著[[太陽眼鏡]]以及帽子,除此之外滴,用[[眼藥水]]亦可幫助緩解症狀。通常僅在翼狀贅肉對視力造成妨礙時,才會建議患者接受手術移除[2];手術後有半數左右的患者仍會復發[2][6]
 
The frequency of the condition varies from 1% to 33% in various regions of the world. It occurs more commonly among males than females and in people who live closer to the equator. The condition becomes more common with age.[7] The condition has been described since at least 1000 BC.[8]
 
全世界各地區的翼狀贅肉患者在1%到33%之間,落差極大;常見於男性多於女性及近[[赤道]]的居民,年紀越大的患者越常見[7];早在西元前1000年前,翼狀贅肉就曾見於文字記載 [8]
 
107 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 107 days ago
'''Hives''' also known as '''urticaria''', is a kind of [[skin rash]] with red, raised, itchy bumps.<ref name=NIH2016>{{cite web|title=Hives|url=https://medlineplus.gov/hives.html|accessdate=10 August 2016}}</ref> They may also burn or sting.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Often the patches of rash move around.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Typically they last a few days and do not leave any long lasting skin changes.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Less than 5% of cases last for more than six weeks.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> The condition frequently recurs.<ref name=Jaf2015>{{cite journal|last1=Jafilan|first1=L|last2=James|first2=C|title=Urticaria and Allergy-Mediated Conditions.|journal=Primary care|date=December 2015|volume=42|issue=4|pages=473-83|pmid=26612369}}</ref>
 
Krystal H <!-- 定義與症狀  -->
Aaron K '''蕁麻疹(hives)''',或稱urticaria,係為一種[[skin rash(皮疹)]],會有又紅又腫的癢癢腫塊,<ref name=NIH2016>{{cite web|title=Hives|url=https://medlineplus.gov/hives.html|accessdate=10  August 2016}}</ref>通常腫塊也會灼熱或刺痛。<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> --> 一片腫塊通常會蔓延。 <!--  <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> 典型的腫塊會持續數日,但不會對皮膚留下長遠的影響,<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> --> 僅有5%的病例會持續超過六週,<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> 蕁麻疹經常復發,<ref name=Jaf2015>{{cite  journal|last1=Jafilan|first1=L|last2=James|first2=C|title=Urticaria and  Allergy-Mediated Conditions.|journal=Primary care|date=December  2015|volume=42|issue=4|pages=473-83|pmid=26612369}}</ref>
 
<!-- Cause and diagnosis -->
Hives  frequently occur following an infection or as a result of an [[allergic  reaction]] such as to medication, [[insect bite]]s, or food.<ref  name=Jaf2015/> [[Psychological stress]], cold temperature, or  vibration may also be a trigger.<ref name=NIH2016/><ref  name=Jaf2015/> In half of cases the cause remains unknown.<ref  name=Jaf2015/> Risk factors include having conditions such as [[hay  fever]] or [[asthma]].<ref>{{cite  book|last1=Zuberbier|first1=Torsten|last2=Grattan|first2=Clive|last3=Maurer|first3=Marcus|title=Urticaria  and Angioedema|date=2010|publisher=Springer Science & Business  Media|isbn=9783540790488|page=38|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=kzWdXE4VsfsC&pg=PA38|language=en}}</ref>  Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance.<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/ -->> [[Patch testing]] may be useful to determine  the allergy.<ref name=Jaf2015/>
 
Krystal H <!-- 病因與診斷  -->
Aaron K 蕁麻疹常見發生於感染或發生於[[過敏反應]]後,例如用藥、 [[insect bite(蚊蟲叮咬)]],或飲食引起。<ref name=Jaf2015/> [[Psychological stress(心理壓力)]]、氣溫過低或震動都可能是引發蕁麻疹的起因。<ref name=NIH2016/><ref name=Jaf2015/> 有一半以上病例的病因尚未明朗,<ref name=Jaf2015/> 危險因素包含[[過敏性鼻炎]]或[[氣喘]]<ref>{{cite   book|last1=Zuberbier|first1=Torsten|last2=Grattan|first2=Clive|last3=Maurer|first3=Marcus|title=Urticaria  and Angioedema|date=2010|publisher=Springer Science & Business  Media|isbn=9783540790488|page=38|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=kzWdXE4VsfsC&pg=PA38|language=en}}</ref> 確診通常是基於目測病徵,<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/ -->> 可能有效的確診過敏方式為使用[[patch testing(皮膚斑點試驗)]] <ref name=Jaf2015/>
 
<!-- Prevention and treatment -->
Prevention is by avoiding whatever it is that causes the condition.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Treatment is typically with [[antihistamines]] such as [[diphenhydramine]] and [[ranitidine]].<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> In severe cases [[corticosteroids|steroids]] or [[leukotriene inhibitors]] may also be used.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Keeping the environmental temperature cool is also useful.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> For cases that last more than six weeks [[immunosuppressants]] like [[cyclosporine]] may be used.<ref name=Jaf2015/>
 
<!-- 預防與治療 -->
預防蕁麻疹的方式是避開任何可能導致蕁麻枕的肇因。<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> --> 典型的治療方式是使用[[抗組織胺藥]]像是[[苯海拉明]] [[雷尼替丁]]<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> -->嚴重的病例可能要使用 [[皮質類固醇]] or  [[leukotriene inhibitors(白三烯拮抗劑)]]<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> --> Keeping the environmental temperature cool is  also useful.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> -->超過六週的病例可能要使用[[immunosuppressants(免疫抑製劑)]]像是[[環孢素]]<ref name=Jaf2015/>
 
<!-- Epidemiology and culture -->
About 20% of people are affected.<ref name=Jaf2015/> Cases of short duration occur equally in males and females while cases of long duration are more common in females.<!-- <ref name=Gri2016/> --> Cases of short duration or more common among children while cases of long duration are more common among those who are middle aged.<!-- <ref name=Gri2016/> --> Hives have been described at least since the time of [[Hippocrates]].<ref name=Gri2016>{{cite book|last1=Griffiths|first1=Christopher|last2=Barker|first2=Jonathan|last3=Bleiker|first3=Tanya|last4=Chalmers|first4=Robert|last5=Creamer|first5=Daniel|title=Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, 4 Volume Set|date=2016|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9781118441176|page=Chapter 42.3|edition=9|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=EyypCwAAQBAJ&pg=SA42-PA3|language=en}}</ref> The term urticaria is from the [[Latin]] ''urtica'' meaning "nettle".<ref>{{cite book|title=A Dictionary of Entomology|date=2011|publisher=CABI|isbn=9781845935429|page=1430|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=9IcmCeAjp6cC&pg=PA1430|language=en}}</ref>
 
Krystal H <!-- 病理學與文化 -->
Aaron K 大約20%的人會得蕁麻疹,<ref name=Jaf2015/> 男性和女性在短暫得蕁麻疹的機率一樣高,但得病時間較長的機率中,女性高於男性;<!-- <ref name=Gri2016/> --> 孩童比較常見短暫得到蕁麻疹,而中年人士常見得較長時間的蕁麻疹,<!--  <ref name=Gri2016/> --> 最早在 [[希波克拉底]]時代,就留有蕁麻疹的文字記載<ref name=Gri2016>{{cite  book|last1=Griffiths|first1=Christopher|last2=Barker|first2=Jonathan|last3=Bleiker|first3=Tanya|last4=Chalmers|first4=Robert|last5=Creamer|first5=Daniel|title=Rook's  Textbook of Dermatology, 4 Volume Set|date=2016|publisher=John Wiley  & Sons|isbn=9781118441176|page=Chapter 42.3|edition=9|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=EyypCwAAQBAJ&pg=SA42-PA3|language=en}}</ref>  “Urticaria"這個詞係來自[[拉丁語]]urtica,係指蕁麻  "nettle".<ref>{{cite book|title=A Dictionary of  Entomology|date=2011|publisher=CABI|isbn=9781845935429|page=1430|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=9IcmCeAjp6cC&pg=PA1430|language=en}}</ref>
 
114 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 114 days ago
Krystal H 維他命C,又稱抗壞血酸 (ascorbic acid) 或 L-抗壞血酸 (L-ascorbic acid),是一種存在於食物中的維他命,可作為[[營養補充品]];維他命C可作補充劑用以預防或治療[[壞血病]][1],目前並無證據顯示可預防感冒[2][3]。維他命C可藉由口服或注射來攝取。[1]
 
It is generally well tolerated.[1] Large doses may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.[3][1] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[4]Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue.[1] Foods that contain vitamin C include citrus fruit, tomatoes, and potatoes.[2]
 
通常維他命C的耐受性很好[1],大劑量服用可能導致腸胃不適、頭痛、睡眠困難以及肌膚泛紅[3][1]。[[懷孕]]期間攝取正常劑量通常是安全無虞的[4],維他命C係為一種[[essential nutrient (基本營養)]]有助於[[組織]]修復[1],含有維他命C的食物包含[[柑橘類水果]]、[[番茄]]以及[[馬鈴薯]]。[2]
 
Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and first made in 1933.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[6] Vitamin C is avaliable as a generic medication and over the counter.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.19 to 0.54 USD per month.[7] In some countries ascorbic acid may be added to foods such as breakfast cereal.[2]
 
維他命C最早發現於1912年,在1928年首次被分離出來,在1933年首次被製造出來[5],於[[世界衛生組織基本藥物標準清單]]上名列有案,是建立[[照護系統]]時相當重要的必備基礎藥物之一[6]。維他命C已經是[[通用名藥物]],也是[[成藥]][1]。在[[發展中國家]]的批發價約在每月0.19到0.54美元之間[7],有些國家將抗壞血酸加入食物,像是[[營養麥片]]。[2]
 
107 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 107 days ago
預防方式包含使用[[eye protection(眼部保護措施)]]<ref  name=Fah2015/> -->,治療方式通常是使用 [[抗生素]]軟膏<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->,通常會建議隱形眼鏡的使用者使用[[fluoroquinolone(喹諾酮)]]抗生素<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> [[Paracetamol]]  (acetaminophen普除通錠)[[NSAIDs(非類固醇消炎止痛藥)]], 以及眼藥水如[[cyclopentolate(露睫體痺露)]] [[paralysis the pupil(麻痺眼球)]]有助於舒緩疼痛。 <ref  name=Fah2015/>目前尚無證據顯示[[配戴眼罩]] 對輕微的撕裂傷口有助益。<ref  name=Lim2016>{{cite  journal|last1=Lim|first1=CH|last2=Turner|first2=A|last3=Lim|first3=BX|title=Patching  for corneal abrasion.|journal=The Cochrane database of systematic  reviews|date=26 July  2016|volume=7|pages=CD004764|pmid=27457359}}</ref> 
 
 
Krystal H <!-- 病理學與預後 -->
Aaron K 在美國,一年中每 1000 人中會有 3 人發生角膜刮傷,<!--  <ref name=Fah2015/> --> 其中,男性發生的機率高於女性。<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->發生角膜刮傷的典型年齡群大約在20多歲和30多歲,<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/>  --> 併發症包含[[bacterial keratitis(細菌型角膜炎)]][[角膜潰瘍]]和 and [[iritis(虹膜炎)]]<ref name=Fah2015/> 發生併發症的百分比可能會提高到8%。<ref>{{cite  book|last1=Smolin|first1=Gilbert|last2=Foster|first2=Charles  Stephen|last3=Azar|first3=Dimitri T.|last4=Dohlman|first4=Claes  H.|title=Smolin and Thoft's The Cornea: Scientific Foundations and  Clinical Practice|date=2005|publisher=Lippincott Williams &  Wilkins|isbn=9780781742061|page=798|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=93s6aes5ob0C&pg=PA798|language=en}}</ref>
 
 
247 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 247 days ago
Saquinavir, sold under the brand names Invirase and Fortovase, is an antiretroviral drug(抗反轉錄病毒藥物) used together with other medications to treat or prevent HIV/AIDS(艾滋病).[1] Typically it is used with ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir(快利佳). It is taken by mouth.[1]
 
Krystal H 沙奎那維 (saquinavir)是一種抗反轉錄病毒藥物,與其他藥物併用以治療或預防艾滋病[1]ritonavir快利佳(lopinavir/ritonavir)。沙奎那維在市場上以InviraseFortovase為名銷售,通常的投藥方式為口服。[1]
 
常見的副作用包含嘔吐、噁心、腹瀉以及感覺疲倦,更嚴重的副作用有引起長QT症、心臟傳導阻滯(heart block)、高脂血症與肝臟相關問題;懷孕患者服用沙奎那維似乎沒有安全疑慮。沙奎那維係透過蛋白酶抑制剂層級,藉由阻斷HIV protease以發揮作用。[1]
 
Saquinavir was first sold in 1995.[2] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines(世界卫生组织基本药物标准清单), the most important medication needed in a basic health system.[3] As of 2015 it is not available as a generic medication(通用名药物) and is expensive.[4] The wholesale cost is about 4.50 USD per day.[5]
 
沙奎那維上市於1995年[2] 。在最基本的健康照護系統(health system)中最必要的藥物清單[[世界卫生组织基本药物标准清单]]登錄有案[3],在2015年還未被認定為通用名药物流通而且要價十分高昂[4],每日批發價大約在4.50美元。[5]
 
121 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 121 days ago
Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body.[4] Facial features frequently include a broad forehead, short nose, and full cheeks, an appearance which has been described as "elfin".[4][3] Mild to moderate intellectual disability with particular problems with visual spatial tasks such as drawing and less problems with language are typical.[4] Those affected often have an outgoing personality and interact readily with strangers.[4][3] Problems with teeth, heart problems, especially supravalvular aortic stenosis, and periods of high blood calcium are common.[4][2]
 
Krystal H 威廉氏症候群(Williams syndrome, 簡稱WS),係指一種對身體各部位皆有影響的[[發展障礙]][4],面部常見特徵包含寬額頭、短鼻子、大範圍的笑肌,外型常被形容為像 "elfin矮人"[4][3]。典型的輕度到中度[[智能障礙]]伴隨有[[visual spatial tasks(空間視覺化能力)]]的特定問題,如繪畫,對話上的問題相對較少[4],患者常見[[個性]]外向,與陌生人的互動極快[4][3],威廉氏症候群患者常見有牙齒、[[心血管疾病]],尤其是[[supravalvular aortic stenosis(主動脈瓣上狹窄)]]及[[high blood calcium(高血鈣)]]期等疾患[4][2]
 
Williams syndrome is caused by a genetic problem, specifically a deletion of about 27 genes from the long arm of chromosome 7.[3][4] Typically this occurs as a random event during the formation of the egg or sperm from which a person develops. In a small number of cases it is inherited from an affected parents in an autosomal dominant manner. The different characteristic features have been linked to the loss of specific genes.[4] The diagnosis is typically suspected based on symptoms and confirmed by genetic testing.[2]
 
威廉氏症候群是一種[[genetic problem(遺傳疾患)]],尤其是因為[[7號染色體]]的長臂從27對染色體中被[[刪除(遺傳學]])[3][4]而發生,此狀況通常是卵子或精子在形成人時的發生的偶發事件;在少數病例中,威廉氏症候群是[[遺傳]]自[[顯性]]患病的父母;患者的特殊面部特徵常被認為是缺失了特定的[[基因]][4],通常確診是基於症狀引起懷疑,並透過[[基因檢測]]以確認患病。[2]
 
Treatment includes special education programs and various types of therapy. Surgery may be done to correct heart problems. Dietary changes or medications may be required for high blood calcium.[2] The syndrome was first described in 1961 by New Zealander John C. P. Williams.[5][6] Williams syndrome affects between 1 in 7,500 to 1 in 20,000 people at birth.[3] Life expectancy is less than that of the general population mostly due to the increased rates of heart disease.[7]
 
治療方式包含[[特殊教育]]及各種形式的[[療法]],手術僅被用於治療心臟疾病,當患者有高血鈣時才需要改變飲食或施以藥物治療[2]。威廉氏症候群的症狀首見於出現紐西蘭心臟學家之口[5][6],平均在7500到20000位新生兒裡會出現一位患者[3],患者的[[預期壽命]]較一般人為短,是因為心血管疾病的風險增加之故。[7]
 
128 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Eva Wu , Krystal H.C. 128 days ago
便秘
 
Eva W Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.[2] The stool is often hard and dry. Complications from constipation may include hemorrhoids, anal fissure or fecal impaction. The normal frequency of bowel movements is between three per day and three per week.[3]
 
Krystal H 便秘係指因糞便會太硬或是太乾而排便不順或難以排出[2],正常排便的頻率約在每日三次到每週三次之間[3],便秘的併發症包含痔瘡、肛裂、糞便阻塞。
 
Eva W Constipation has many causes. Common causes include slow movement of stool within the colon, irritable bowel syndrome, and pelvic disorders. Underlying associated diseases include hypothyroidism, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, colon cancer, diverticulitis, and inflammatory bowel disease.[3][4] Medications associated with constipation include opioids, certain antacids, calcium channel blockers, and anticholinergics.[3] Of those taking opioids about 90% develop constipation.[5] Constipation is more concerning when there is weight loss or anemia, blood is present in the stool, there is a history of inflammatory bowel disease or colon cancer in a person's family, or it is of new onset in someone who is older.[6]
 
Krystal H 便秘通常有許多成因,常見原因包含內有糞便的結腸運動得很慢、患有腸躁症或骨腔疾病等,相關的潛在性疾病包含甲狀腺功能減退症、腹瀉、帕金森氏症、結腸癌、憩室炎、炎症性腸病[3][4] 等,導致便秘的藥物治療包含服用鴉片類藥物、特定抗酸藥、鈣通道阻滯劑以及抗膽鹼劑[3] ,大約90%服用鴉片藥物的患者會發生便秘[5]。當便秘患者發生下述情況時將需要進一步的觀察,如便秘體重減輕、貧血、糞便帶血,家族病史中有人擁有炎症性腸病或結腸癌者,或初發時患者年事已高等。[6]
 
Eva W Treatment of constipation depends on the underlying cause and the duration that it has been present. Measures that may help include drinking enough fluids, eating more fiber, and exercise. If this is not effective laxatives of the bulk forming agent, osmotic agent, stool softener, or lubricant type may be recommended. Stimulant laxatives are generally reserved for when other types are not effective. Other treatments may include biofeedback or surgery.[3]
 
Krystal H 便秘的治療方式依其潛在性成因和患病時間長度有所不同,可能有幫助的措施包含飲用足夠的液體,攝取多一點纖維及增進運動等,如果上述方法都無效,建議服用膨脹型瀉劑的瀉藥、滲透劑、軟便劑或潤滑劑;刺激型瀉藥僅建議給上述方式都無效的患者,其他療法包含生物回饋或接受手術。[3]
 
Eva W In the general population rates of constipation are 2–30 percent.[7] Among old people living in a care home the rate of constipation is 50–75 percent.[5] People spend, in the United States, more than US$250 million on medications for constipation a year.[8]
 
Krystal H 通常便秘的發生率約在 2-30%[7],生活於安養院的老人則提高到50-70%[5];在美國,平均一年投入2.5億美元在便秘治療上。[8]
 

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