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君天空

107 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by 君天空 107 days ago
翼狀贅肉 Pterygium
 
翼狀贅肉指一種生長於[[眼角膜]]之上的粉紅色三角形組織[2] ,通常始於靠近鼻樑的眼角膜[3] ,翼狀贅肉生長極慢且常見於雙眼[5],但通常不會長得大到足以遮蔽[[瞳孔]][2]
 
107 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. , 君天空 107 days ago
'''Hives''' also known as '''urticaria''', is a kind of [[skin rash]] with red, raised, itchy bumps.<ref name=NIH2016>{{cite web|title=Hives|url=https://medlineplus.gov/hives.html|accessdate=10 August 2016}}</ref> They may also burn or sting.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Often the patches of rash move around.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Typically they last a few days and do not leave any long lasting skin changes.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Less than 5% of cases last for more than six weeks.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> The condition frequently recurs.<ref name=Jaf2015>{{cite journal|last1=Jafilan|first1=L|last2=James|first2=C|title=Urticaria and Allergy-Mediated Conditions.|journal=Primary care|date=December 2015|volume=42|issue=4|pages=473-83|pmid=26612369}}</ref>
 
Krystal H <!-- 定義與症狀  -->
Aaron K '''蕁麻疹'''(hives),或稱urticaria一種[[皮疹]],會有又紅又腫的癢癢腫塊,<ref name=NIH2016>{{cite web|title=Hives|url=https://medlineplus.gov/hives.html|accessdate=10  August 2016}}</ref>通常腫塊也會灼熱或刺痛。<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> --> 一片腫塊通常會蔓延。 <!--  <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> 普通的腫塊會持續數日,但不會對皮膚留下長遠的影響,<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> --> 僅有5%的病例會持續超過六週,<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> 蕁麻疹經常復發,<ref name=Jaf2015>{{cite  journal|last1=Jafilan|first1=L|last2=James|first2=C|title=Urticaria and  Allergy-Mediated Conditions.|journal=Primary care|date=December  2015|volume=42|issue=4|pages=473-83|pmid=26612369}}</ref>
 
<!-- Cause and diagnosis -->
Hives  frequently occur following an infection or as a result of an [[allergic  reaction]] such as to medication, [[insect bite]]s, or food.<ref  name=Jaf2015/> [[Psychological stress]], cold temperature, or  vibration may also be a trigger.<ref name=NIH2016/><ref  name=Jaf2015/> In half of cases the cause remains unknown.<ref  name=Jaf2015/> Risk factors include having conditions such as [[hay  fever]] or [[asthma]].<ref>{{cite  book|last1=Zuberbier|first1=Torsten|last2=Grattan|first2=Clive|last3=Maurer|first3=Marcus|title=Urticaria  and Angioedema|date=2010|publisher=Springer Science & Business  Media|isbn=9783540790488|page=38|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=kzWdXE4VsfsC&pg=PA38|language=en}}</ref>  Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance.<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/ -->> [[Patch testing]] may be useful to determine  the allergy.<ref name=Jaf2015/>
 
Krystal H <!-- 病因與診斷  -->
Aaron K 蕁麻疹常見發生於感染或發生於[[過敏反應]]後,例如用藥、 [[insect bite(蚊蟲叮咬)]],或飲食引起。<ref name=Jaf2015/> [[Psychological stress(心理壓力)]]、氣溫過低或震動都可能是引發蕁麻疹的起因。<ref name=NIH2016/><ref name=Jaf2015/> 有一半以上病例的病因尚未明朗,<ref name=Jaf2015/> 危險因素包含[[過敏性鼻炎]]或[[氣喘]]<ref>{{cite   book|last1=Zuberbier|first1=Torsten|last2=Grattan|first2=Clive|last3=Maurer|first3=Marcus|title=Urticaria  and Angioedema|date=2010|publisher=Springer Science & Business  Media|isbn=9783540790488|page=38|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=kzWdXE4VsfsC&pg=PA38|language=en}}</ref> 確診通常是基於目測病徵,<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/ -->> 可能有效的確診過敏方式為使用[[patch testing(皮膚斑點試驗)]] <ref name=Jaf2015/>
 
<!-- Prevention and treatment -->
Prevention is by avoiding whatever it is that causes the condition.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Treatment is typically with [[antihistamines]] such as [[diphenhydramine]] and [[ranitidine]].<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> In severe cases [[corticosteroids|steroids]] or [[leukotriene inhibitors]] may also be used.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> Keeping the environmental temperature cool is also useful.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> --> For cases that last more than six weeks [[immunosuppressants]] like [[cyclosporine]] may be used.<ref name=Jaf2015/>
 
<!-- 預防與治療 -->
預防蕁麻疹的方式是避開任何可能導致蕁麻枕的肇因。<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> --> 典型的治療方式是使用[[抗組織胺藥]]像是[[苯海拉明]] [[雷尼替丁]]<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> -->嚴重的病例可能要使用 [[皮質類固醇]] or  [[leukotriene inhibitors(白三烯拮抗劑)]]<!-- <ref  name=Jaf2015/> --> Keeping the environmental temperature cool is  also useful.<!-- <ref name=Jaf2015/> -->超過六週的病例可能要使用[[immunosuppressants(免疫抑製劑)]][[環孢素]]<ref name=Jaf2015/>
 
<!-- Epidemiology and culture -->
About 20% of people are affected.<ref name=Jaf2015/> Cases of short duration occur equally in males and females while cases of long duration are more common in females.<!-- <ref name=Gri2016/> --> Cases of short duration or more common among children while cases of long duration are more common among those who are middle aged.<!-- <ref name=Gri2016/> --> Hives have been described at least since the time of [[Hippocrates]].<ref name=Gri2016>{{cite book|last1=Griffiths|first1=Christopher|last2=Barker|first2=Jonathan|last3=Bleiker|first3=Tanya|last4=Chalmers|first4=Robert|last5=Creamer|first5=Daniel|title=Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, 4 Volume Set|date=2016|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9781118441176|page=Chapter 42.3|edition=9|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=EyypCwAAQBAJ&pg=SA42-PA3|language=en}}</ref> The term urticaria is from the [[Latin]] ''urtica'' meaning "nettle".<ref>{{cite book|title=A Dictionary of Entomology|date=2011|publisher=CABI|isbn=9781845935429|page=1430|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=9IcmCeAjp6cC&pg=PA1430|language=en}}</ref>
 
Krystal H <!-- 病理學與文化 -->
Aaron K 大約20%的人會蕁麻疹,<ref name=Jaf2015/> 男性和女性短暫得蕁麻疹的機率一樣,但得病時間較長的機率中,女性高於男性;<!-- <ref name=Gri2016/> --> 短暫得到蕁麻疹在孩童比較常見,而中年人士常見得較長時間的蕁麻疹,<!--  <ref name=Gri2016/> --> 最早关于蕁麻疹的文字記載是在[[希波克拉底]]時代的。<ref name=Gri2016>{{cite  book|last1=Griffiths|first1=Christopher|last2=Barker|first2=Jonathan|last3=Bleiker|first3=Tanya|last4=Chalmers|first4=Robert|last5=Creamer|first5=Daniel|title=Rook's  Textbook of Dermatology, 4 Volume Set|date=2016|publisher=John Wiley  & Sons|isbn=9781118441176|page=Chapter 42.3|edition=9|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=EyypCwAAQBAJ&pg=SA42-PA3|language=en}}</ref>  “Urticaria"這個詞來自[[拉丁語]]urtica,指蕁麻  "nettle".<ref>{{cite book|title=A Dictionary of  Entomology|date=2011|publisher=CABI|isbn=9781845935429|page=1430|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=9IcmCeAjp6cC&pg=PA1430|language=en}}</ref>
 
107 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by 君天空 107 days ago
維他命C,又稱抗壞血酸 (ascorbic acid) 或 L-抗壞血酸 (L-ascorbic acid),是一種存在於食物中的維他命,可作為[[營養補充品]];維他命C可作補充劑用以預防或治療[[壞血病]][1],目前並無證據顯示維他命C可預防感冒[2][3]。維他命C可藉由口服或注射來攝取。[1]
 
通常維他命C的耐受性很好[1],大劑量服用可能導致腸胃不適、頭痛、睡眠困難以及肌膚泛紅[3][1]。[[懷孕]]期間攝取正常劑量通常是安全無虞的[4],維他命C一種[[essential nutrient (基本營養)]]有助於[[組織]]修復[1],含有維他命C的食物包含[[柑橘類水果]]、[[番茄]]以及[[馬鈴薯]]。[2]
 
維他命C最早發現於1912年,在1928年首次被成为分離出來,在1933年首次被成功製造出來[5],於[[世界衛生組織基本藥物標準清單]]上名列有案,是建立[[照護系統]]時相當重要的必備基礎藥物之一[6]。維他命C已經是[[通用名藥物]],也是[[成藥]][1]。在[[發展中國家]]的批發價約在每月0.19到0.54美元之間[7],有些國家抗壞血酸加入食物[[營養麥片]]。[2]
 
107 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. , 君天空 107 days ago
| name            = 角膜刮傷
 
'''角膜刮傷''' 指[[眼睛]]的[[角膜]]表面刮傷<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=2016-11-06|title=Corneal Abrasion |publisher=National Eye Institute|url=https://nei.nih.gov/faqs/cornea-corneal-abrasion|website=nei.nih.gov}}</ref>,症狀包含眼睛疼痛、紅腫、[[light sensitivity(對光敏感)]]、眼睛內有[[異物]]<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Most people recover completely within three days.<ref name=Fah2015/>
 
角膜刮傷的大部分病例是因為以手指戴上[[隱形眼鏡]]時造成眼睛的微小創傷<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> 大約四分之一的病例是在工作時受傷<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->。醫生診斷時會用[[螢光素]]染色使用[[裂隙燈]]來<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->。更嚴重的創傷可能是眼睛角膜潰瘍、[[眼球破裂]]、[[recurrent erosion syndrome]]以及眼內有[[異物]]都与角膜劃伤不同。<ref name=Fah2015>{{cite journal|first1=Faheem|last1=Ahmed|first2=Robert James|last2=House|first3=Brad Hal|last3=Feldman|title=Corneal Abrasions and Corneal Foreign Bodies|journal=Primary Care|date=2015年12月1|issn=1558-299X|pages=363–375|volume=42|issue=3|pmid=26319343|doi=10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.004}}</ref>
 
預防方式包使用[[眼部保護措施]]<ref  name=Fah2015/> -->,治療方式通常是使用 [[抗生素]]軟膏<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->,通常會建議隱形眼鏡的使用者使用[[喹諾酮]]抗生素<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> [[Paracetamol]]  (acetaminophen普除通錠)[[NSAIDs(非類固醇消炎止痛藥)]], 以及眼藥水如[[cyclopentolate(露睫體痺露)]] [[paralysis the pupil(麻痺眼球)]]舒緩疼痛。 <ref  name=Fah2015/>目前尚無證據顯示[[配戴眼罩]]對輕微的撕裂傷口有帮助<ref  name=Lim2016>{{cite  journal|last1=Lim|first1=CH|last2=Turner|first2=A|last3=Lim|first3=BX|title=Patching  for corneal abrasion.|journal=The Cochrane database of systematic  reviews|date=2016年7月26|volume=7|pages=CD004764|pmid=27457359}}</ref> 
 
 
Krystal H <!-- 病理學與預後 -->
Aaron K 在美國,一年中每 1000 人中會有 3 人發生角膜刮傷,<!--  <ref name=Fah2015/> --> 其中,男性發生的機率高於女性。<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->發生角膜刮傷的典型年齡群大約在20多歲和30多歲,<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/>  --> 併發症包含[[bacterial keratitis(細菌型角膜炎)]][[角膜潰瘍]]和 and [[iritis(虹膜炎)]]<ref name=Fah2015/> 發生其他併發症的百分比可能會提升至8%。<ref>{{cite  book|last1=Smolin|first1=Gilbert|last2=Foster|first2=Charles  Stephen|last3=Azar|first3=Dimitri T.|last4=Dohlman|first4=Claes  H.|title=Smolin and Thoft's The Cornea: Scientific Foundations and  Clinical Practice|date=2005|publisher=Lippincott Williams &  Wilkins|isbn=9780781742061|page=798|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=93s6aes5ob0C&pg=PA798|language=en}}</ref>
 
 

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