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Taiwania Justo Shao-dian Jhang

660 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Taiwania Justo Shao-dian Jhang 660 days ago
  • 本週爐主:輪空,由少典代理
  • 本週譯小時:2015/9/421:00-22:00
 
 
713 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Taiwania Justo Shao-dian Jhang 713 days ago
美洲錐蟲症 (Chagas Disease)
Taiwania J
  • 2015/7/13 已整合
 
 
'''查加斯式病'''({{lang-en|Chagas disease}}),又稱為'''美洲錐蟲症'''({{lang|en|American trypanosomiasis}}}}),是一種{{link-en|熱帶疾病|Tropical disease}}[[寄生蟲病|寄生蟲]]疾病致病原是{{link-en|美洲錐蟲|Trypanosoma cruzi}}[1]通常藉由俗稱為親吻蟲的{{link-en|錐蝽亞|Triatominae|錐鼻蟲}}傳播[1]。感染的症狀隨著疾病的進程而改變。在感染初期,以下症狀的表徵嚴重度不一:發燒、[[淋巴結]]腫大、頭痛或是被叮咬位置的局部腫大[1]。叮咬後8到12周,疾病進入慢性期,60%到70%不再出現新症狀[2][3]。其他30%到40%的人,在初次感染後的10到30年間,會出現更多症狀[3]。這些症狀包括[[心室]]擴大,其中20到30%甚至會導致[[心臟衰竭]][1]。有將近10%的人會有{{link-en|巨食道症|Megaesophagus|食道擴張}}或是{{link-en|巨結腸症|Megacolon}}的症狀[1]。
 
美洲錐蟲常常藉由一種{{link-en|錐蝽亞科|Triatominae}}[[吸血 (生物學)|吸血]]錐鼻蟲,俗稱親吻蟲,在人類或是其他哺乳動物間傳播[4]。這種昆蟲有許多俗名,在阿根廷、玻利維亞、智利、巴拉圭被稱為{{lang|es|vinchuca}}在巴西被稱為{{lang|pt|barbeiro}}(多為{{link-en|理髮師兼外科醫師|Barber surgeon}}稱呼),在哥倫比亞被稱為{{lang|es|pito}},在中美洲被稱為{{lang|es|chinche}},在委內瑞拉被稱為{{lang|es|chipo}}。疾病也可以經由其他路徑傳播,像是[[輸血]][[器官移植]]、吃了被美洲錐蟲汙染的食物和{{link-en|母嬰垂直傳染|Vertically transmitted infection}}[1]。藉由使用顯微鏡,觀察血液樣本中的寄生蟲,可以做為疾病的早期診斷[3]。疾病慢性期則是藉由血液中的對美洲錐蟲的[[抗體]]來確診[3]。
 
查加斯病可藉由清除錐鼻蟲避免被錐鼻蟲叮咬等措施來預防感染[1]。篩檢輸血用的血液也是預防手法之一[1]。截自2013年,美洲錐蟲症的疫苗還未被開發[1]。早期感染時使用{{link-en|苯並咪唑|Benznidazole}}{{link-en|硝呋莫|Nifurtimox}}[1]。對美洲錐蟲病的患者來說,藥物治療介入的時機點越早,成效越好,反之,成效越差[1]。藥物治療對於已經進入慢性期的患者,能夠延遲或避免產生末期的徵候[1]。苯並咪唑或硝呋莫司對於將近四成的人有部分副作用,像是皮膚相關症狀、中樞神經毒性與消化系統的不適[2][5][6]。
 
據估計700─800萬人感染查加斯式病,大多位於[[墨西哥]]、[[中美洲]]與[[南美洲]][1]。2006年,此病共造成約12,500人死亡[2]。大多數罹患此病的病患家境清寒[2],而且不曉得他們已經罹患此病[7]。在查加斯式病流行地區,大規模的人口遷移將會增加該區域罹病人數,這樣的情形甚至已經擴展到了歐洲國家與美國[1]。截自2014年,這些區域的案例數也有上升趨勢[8]。1909年{{link-en|卡羅斯·查加斯|Carlos Chagas}}醫師首次命名並描述美洲錐蟲症[1]。除了人類以外,美洲錐蟲症至少影響150種以上的動物[2]。
 
912 days ago
Taiwania J '''蛔蟲病'''({{lang-en|ascariasis}}),是一種經[[線蟲動物門]]的寄生動物[[蛔蟲]]所導致的疾病。超過85%的感染病例,尤其是蟲數目非常少的情況下,是沒有症狀的。隨著蛔蟲數目的增加,症狀就會開始出現及變嚴重;在疾病發作初期,可能包含[[呼吸困難]]與發燒之後可能會伴隨腹部腫脹、腹痛與[[腹瀉]]等症狀。兒童是最常被感染的族群,而該疾病也會導致兒童體重無法增加、[[營養不良]]與學習問題。
 
Taiwania J
  • 這段文字乾脆直接刪掉重寫好了。
 
蛔蟲病是經由食用或飲用存有從糞便而來的蛔蟲卵之食物或水而感染。蛔蟲的卵會在[[消化系統|腸道]]孵化,接者在腸壁穿孔,並經由[[血液]]遷移到[[肺]]部。蛔蟲幼蟲會侵入[[肺泡]],往上通過[[氣管]],感染者接著會咳嗽並吞嚥這些幼蟲。最後,幼蟲會經由胃部,第二次進入腸道成長為成蟲。
 
Prevention is by improved sanitation which includes improving access to toilets and proper disposal of feces.[1][4] Handwashing with soap appears protective.[5] In areas where more than 20% of the population is affected, treating everyone at regular intervals is recommended.[1] Reoccurring infections are, however, common.[2][6] There is no vaccine.[2] Treatments recommended by the World Health Organization are the medication: albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole or pyrantel pamoate.[2] Other effective agents include tribendimidine and nitazoxanide.[2]
 
Kevin C 蛔蟲病可以藉改善衛生條件預防,包括廁所的普及化與糞便的妥善處理。以肥皂洗手也被認為有預防效果。在感染率大於20%的區域,一般建議對所有居民定期投藥治療,但重覆感染仍然相當常見。目前並沒有有效的疫苗。世界衛生組織建議使用[[阿苯達唑]]、{{link-en|美鞭達唑|Mebendazole}}、{{link-en|左旋咪唑衍生物|levamisole}}、或{{link-en|雙羥萘酸噻嘧啶|pyrantel pamoate}}來治療蛔蟲病,其他有效的藥物包括{{link-en|三苄糖苷|tribenoside}}與{{link-en|硝唑尼特|nitazoxanide}}等。
 
About 1.2 billion people globally have ascariasis, with the most heavily affected populations being in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia.[1][7] This makes ascariasis the most common form of soil-transmitted helminthiasis.[7] As of 2010, it caused about 2,700 deaths, down from 3,400 in 1990.[8] Another type of Ascaris infects pigs.[1]
 
Taiwania J 全球大約12億人罹患蛔蟲病,最多感染的地區包含[[撒哈拉以南非洲]]、[[拉丁美洲]]與亞洲。這使得蛔蟲病成為最常見的{{link-en|土壤傳播蠕蟲病役|Soil-transmitted helminthiasis}}。截至2010年,該疾病導致2,700人死亡,比起1990年的3,400人有所下降。另外一種{{link-en|蛔蟲屬|Ascaris|蛔蟲}}會感染豬隻。
 
 
 
上官良治 2014-12-? 尚未與中文維基百科「蛔蟲病」的引言頁面整合
 
 
342 days ago
  • 準則「先求顯示既有unicode無解缺字,再求美」
Taiwania J
  • 未來是否會邀請如 justfont 等字形製作團體或公司去修飾字體?
shoichi.chou@gmail.com
  • 他們是傳統靜態組合的技術,動態組字的是靠演算法自動運算
薛丞宏
  • 有些偏旁原本字體可能沒有:⿺最後一筆要拉長、⿰左部件需變體、…
  • 線上討論:維基社群等跳加入協作的方式,劃分為組字server、MW插件端,甚至可能加上瀏覽器插件(有人想作的話)
  • 組字server:
  • 黑體支援
Yang-Hsiang C
  • 期待! 有些字由目前的字組出來尚不美觀。
  • 宋體似乎支援度最高,有些組件用楷體無法輸出,會變成半宋半楷。
shoichi.chou@gmail.com
  • 關於美觀,就是先求有,再求美。因為目的是要在維基文哭能顯示出可交換的缺字。而缺字的自動演算法,其實相當於電腦自動寫毛筆字
薛丞宏
  • 既然都open source,大家就照自己的想法發issue,讓(大家去搶)工程師決定先做哪一個。
  • 每個人的需求都不一樣,shoichi想要先能用,但楊翔希望做出來就漂亮,馬上展示給別人,沒有一定誰好誰壞
shoichi.chou@gmail.com
  • 我會幫忙先讓思源黑體能支援,因為黑體是維基網誌最高比例用到的字型,動態組字能組出黑體,比較好融入原來傳統靜態組字的黑體字型
  • 包圍、半包圍部件的回報機制
Yang-Hsiang C
  • http://j.mp/字造者 類似 意傳. 的網站,讓人參與,跳出回報對話窗。越多參與,越能周全回報。
  • 回報內容公開,依熱門度解issue。
  •  
  • Q:有沒有辦法在造字的網址上回報?最直接key在網址後面。
 
薛丞宏
  • 你說直接在 意傳 或其他網站上做個按鈕之類的?按鈕之後再自動post去表單
Yang-Hsiang C
  • 是的,在造字過程中有問題回報。
  •  
  • 建立結構化的回報機制。
  • 如:"變體"方式。部件理想的組合比例。
  •  
薛丞宏
  • 網頁顯示不出來@@
Yang-Hsiang C
  • 好像沒問題了!! 之前有部碰到框框字。只是字型沒有楷體:
  •  
  • 後面沒有組件的話就不影響
 
薛丞宏
  • 對呀,楷體字體的部件比較少
Yang-Hsiang C
  • 目前我把zh-tw看得到的部首都回報囉。還有其它的可用的部件嗎?
薛丞宏
  • 目前是回在iissue,然後有人commit上去,主機就可以更新了
Yang-Hsiang C
薛丞宏
  • ethercal/google sheets
  • 有哪些部件可以用,要看字體有沒有那個部件,所以加其他字體(黑體)需要看他部件有多少
  • 缺部件的字形,也可以自己畫? XDXD
 
  • 包圍、半包圍部件的實作問題
Yang-Hsiang C
  • 我三部五時看到時事就會創作一些字,碰到問題會回報。想開個網站邀請有興趣的鄉民來造字,也有回報介面。
  • 原碼文件英文翻譯(基金會工程師 code review)
薛丞宏
  • 加在javadoc上就好了
  • shoich: 不是javadoc,是做英文版的README
  • 丞宏:我們要先整理程式到有辦法review吧
shoichi.chou@gmail.com
  • 他們已經在review了
  • MW插件端:
  • 改用mw的機制來cache圖片,不再直接呼叫組字server
Yang-Hsiang C
  • 有被呼叫過的字若存在資料庫,或許可減輕負擔。
shoichi.chou@gmail.com
  • 這個承宏的server已經是這樣作的,不過在維基端這邊,應該還會作一層cache
  • 字型變換語法
  • 字體大小變換語法
Yang-Hsiang C
  • 目前png, svg的輸出大小似乎為固定?
shoichi.chou@gmail.com
  • 對目前對目前是固定的
Yang-Hsiang C
  • 若能加上大小語法,使用上更靈活。
薛丞宏
  • 當初沒這個參數好像是我程式有一些限制,可能沒有這麼好改,不過可以現在發在issue上
shoichi.chou@gmail.com
  • 喔不,這是我們在MW插件這邊的課題,就是<ids size=50>一類的設計,基本上 server png傳出來圖片是夠大的,是我這邊要給ids標籤加上方便排版用的語法
 
  • 其他語法?
Taiwania J
  • 有沒有辦法自定義念法,如果使用者為這個字命名了一個念法,或是本身此字就有固定念法,能夠在輸入語法上做一些調整。
Taiwania J
  • 類似,但我覺得可以從伺服器端就能夠讓使用者定義念法,經過一定的審核機制後列入,並且在 MediaWiki 的輸入介面或別的網站的輸入介面中,由念法選擇自定義造字。這會大量減少輸入組字指令的時間。
薛丞宏
  • 可以寫在線上編輯器,再自己複製過去XD chrome外掛做得到嗎?其實我用fx耶
shoichi.chou@gmail.com
  • 輔助輸入的extension
Reke W
  • 組字符號的輸入替代方案,也就是可以直接用鍵盤key得出來的符號能替代
薛丞宏
  • 可以寫個chrome外掛,ctrl+q就跳出`⿰`、ctrl+w就跳出``之類的
Reke W
  • 這不夠泛用,我應該會用WM的template 替代,例如{{ids|a}}=`⿰` {{ids|b}}=``
 
351 days ago
德 阿 乙山: 街友成因 學界觀點/地方意見領袖觀點/街友自身觀點
連誼 : 遊民服務的三個階段,松山健康街友統計人數,
周國渝 小豬: 地瓜媽媽(人安基金會新增條目)、遊民服務三個階段103頁圖片
阿德: 公益彩卷資料
 
 
 
 
  • 討論本次聚會目標
  • 公益彩券:阿德認領(發牌、領牌、資本控制的問題的文獻蒐集)
  1. 電腦彩券就是8%,刮刮樂10%,沒錯就是這個比例
  1. 一張大樂透賺4元,威力彩8元,兌獎的部分是2元傭金
  1. 三立:
  1. 除了要有殘障手冊外還要抽籤,沒有抽到一成喔,看你的銷售額,基本的是抽7%,銷售額過低的店家有可能會被中途撤銷營業許可!
 
連誼
  • 衛生福利部統計處:
  • 統計處首頁 > 衛生福利統計專區 > 社會福利統計年報表>14 其他社會福利統計http://goo.gl/Zddpi9
 
周國渝
 
 
  • 地瓜媽媽(從人安基金會條目中增加一個章節):小豬認領
 
德 阿 決定下次分享者:
張獻忠
人安基金會
 
 
 
  • 本次工作成果
 
 
452 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Taiwania Justo Shao-dian Jhang 452 days ago
大多數的細菌能進入肺部主要是因為在呼吸時[[吸入]]寄宿在喉嚨或是鼻腔的微生物[21]。有一半左右的人會於熟睡時吸入這些細菌[25] 。人類的喉嚨時時充斥這些微生物,而那些有[[感染性]]的只會在特定時候與特定時機發難[25]。一些少數的細菌例如[[結核分枝桿菌]]還有[[退伍軍人桿菌]]都是依靠飛沫到達肺部的[21]。而也有其他藉著血液傳播的病菌[22]。在細菌到達肺部後,會開始侵略在細胞以及肺泡間的空隙,在那裡,[[巨噬細胞]]還有[[嗜中性球]](是種防疫性[[白血球]])也會努力抵抗細菌的入侵[43]。嗜中性球同時也釋出[[細胞激素]],促進身體啟動免疫系統[44] 。這會導致在細菌性肺炎中常見的發燒、寒顫與疲勞等症狀[44] 。在血管周遭的嗜中性球、細菌以及細胞間液會充斥在肺泡內,這也是讓肺部在X光下會顯現出團狀陰影的原因[45]
 
 
 
Taiwania J 護理之家相關肺炎
護理之家相關肺炎指的是於{{link-en|護理之家|nursing home care}}得到的肺炎[57]。即使護理之家中的一名住戶最近沒有去醫院,但同室住戶和來訪的{{link-en|健康專業人員|health professional}}就有可能造訪過醫院;再加上這些住戶會因高齡而產生相關的併發症,因此護理之家相關肺炎可以看做是醫療照護相關肺炎的一種型態,發病原因與特徵會類似院內感染性肺炎而不像社區性肺炎,需要廣效性抗生素來治療。
 
  • Hospital
Hospital-acquired pneumonia is acquired in a hospital[56] (specifically, pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after admission, which was not incubating at the time of admission[57]), and as such is likely to involve hospital-acquired infections, with higher risk of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Also, because hospital patients are often ill (which is why they are present in the hospital), comorbidities are an issue.
 
  • 院內感染性肺炎
院內感染性肺炎Hospital-acquired pneumonia是在醫院內發生的肺部感染,通常指的是在入院時不存在並在入院後超過48小時才發生的肺炎[56][57]。院內感染性肺炎很可能是由多重抗藥性病原所造成,另外由於住院患者的健康情形較為不佳,併發症也是院內感染性肺炎患者的隱憂之一。
 
 
 
 
  • 預防
 
[[疫苗接種]]能預防數種感染兒童與成人的細菌性及病毒性肺炎。[[季節性流感疫苗]]對於預防流感有一定效果[13][59],[[美國疾病控制與預防中心]]建議六個月以上的孩子與成人每年都應施打流感疫苗[60]。醫療人員接受疫苗注射也能減少他們將病毒性肺炎傳染給病人的風險[53]。
 
研究證據也支持施打[[流感嗜血桿菌]]疫苗與[[肺炎鏈球菌]]疫苗[40],讓兒童施打肺炎鏈球菌疫苗會讓成人被孩子傳染而染病的機會也下降,而也有成人用的肺炎鏈球菌疫苗,施打後發生侵襲性的肺炎鏈球菌感染的機會會下降[61]。兒童肺炎鏈球菌疫苗依然是2009年高收入國家最廣泛應用的疫苗,雖然這一現狀正在改變。2009年,盧安達成為第一個引進該疫苗作為國家免疫計劃的低收入國家。
 
Other
 
Smoking cessation(戒烟)[49] and reducing indoor air pollution(空氣污染), such as that from cooking indoors with wood or dung(糞便), are both recommended.[20][22] Smoking appears to be the single biggest risk factor for pneumococcal pneumonia in otherwise-healthy adults.[53] Hand hygiene and coughing into one's sleeve may also be effective preventative measures.[62] Wearing surgical masks by the sick may also prevent illness.[53]
Appropriately treating underlying illnesses (such as HIV/AIDS(艾滋病), diabetes mellitus(糖尿病), and malnutrition(營養不良)) can decrease the risk of pneumonia.[22][62][65] In children less than 6 months of age, exclusive breast feeding reduces both the risk and severity of disease.[22] In those with HIV/AIDS and a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/uL the antibiotic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole(複方新諾明) decreases the risk of Pneumocystis pneumonia(肺囊蟲肺炎)[66] and is also useful for prevention in those that are immunocomprised but do not have HIV.[67]
 
 
  • Prognosis 預後
With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia will stabilize in 3–6 days.[86] It often takes a few weeks before most symptoms resolve.[86] X-ray finding typically clear within four weeks and mortality is low (less than 1%).[21][87] In the elderly or people with other lung problems, recovery may take more than 12 weeks. In persons requiring hospitalization, mortality may be as high as 10%, and in those requiring intensive care it may reach 30–50%.[21] Pneumonia is the most common hospital-acquired infection(院內感染) that causes death.[25] Before the advent of antibiotics, mortality was typically 30% in those that were hospitalized.[17]
 
大部分的細菌型肺炎,在治療後的3─6天內會趨於穩定[86],但必須要花費數週時間,才能緩解大部分的症狀[86]。4週以內,可以從X光檢驗中測得肺部狀況已經乾淨,死亡率也會降低(低於1%)。
 
 
  • Epidemiology 流行病學
 
In 2008, pneumonia occurred in approximately 156 million children (151 million in the developing world and 5 million in the developed world).[13] In 2010, it resulted in 1.3 million deaths, or 18% of all deaths in those under five years, of which 95% occurred in the developing world.[13][20][92] Countries with the greatest burden of disease include India (43 million), China (21 million) and Pakistan (10 million).[93] It is the leading cause of death among children in low income countries(发展中国家).[13][14] Many of these deaths occur in the newborn(嬰兒) period. The World Health Organization(世界卫生组织) estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths is due to pneumonia.[94] Approximately half of these deaths can be prevented, as they are caused by the bacteria for which an effective vaccine is available.[95] In 2011, pneumonia was the most common reason for admission to the hospital after an emergency department visit in the U.S. for infants and children.[96]
 
  • History 歷史
 
Pneumonia has been a common disease throughout human history.[97] The symptoms were described by Hippocrates(希波克拉底) (c. 460 BC – 370 BC):[97] "Peripneumonia, and pleuritic affections, are to be thus observed: If the fever be acute, and if there be pains on either side, or in both, and if expiration be if cough be present, and the sputa expectorated be of a blond or livid color, or likewise thin, frothy, and florid, or having any other character different from the common... When pneumonia is at its height, the case is beyond remedy if he is not purged, and it is bad if he has dyspnoea, and urine that is thin and acrid, and if sweats come out about the neck and head, for such sweats are bad, as proceeding from the suffocation, rales, and the violence of the disease which is obtaining the upper hand."[98] However, Hippocrates referred to pneumonia as a disease "named by the ancients." He also reported the results of surgical drainage of empyemas. Maimonides(邁蒙尼德) (1135–1204 AD) observed: "The basic symptoms that occur in pneumonia and that are never lacking are as follows: acute fever, sticking pleuritic(胸膜炎) pain in the side, short rapid breaths, serrated pulse(脉搏) and cough."[99] This clinical description is quite similar to those found in modern textbooks, and it reflected the extent of medical knowledge through the Middle Ages(中世纪) into the 19th century.
 
Edwin Klebs was the first to observe bacteria in the airways of persons having died of pneumonia in 1875.[100] Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was performed by Carl Friedländer[101] and Albert Fränkel[102]in 1882 and 1884, respectively. Friedländer's initial work introduced the Gram stain(革蘭氏染色), a fundamental laboratory test still used today to identify and categorize bacteria. Christian Gram(汉斯·克里斯蒂安·革兰)'s paper describing the procedure in 1884 helped to differentiate the two bacteria, and showed that pneumonia could be caused by more than one microorganism.[103]
Sir William Osler, known as "the father of modern medicine," appreciated the death and disability caused by pneumonia, describing it as the "captain of the men of death" in 1918, as it had overtaken tuberculosis(結核) as one of the leading causes of death in this time. This phrase was originally coined by John Bunyan(約翰·班揚) in reference to "consumption" (tuberculosis).[104][105] Osler also described pneumonia as "the old man's friend" as death was often quick and painless when there were many slower and more painful ways to die.[17]
Several developments in the 1900s improved the outcome for those with pneumonia. With the advent of penicillin(青霉素) and other antibiotics, modern surgical techniques, and intensive care in the 20th century, mortality from pneumonia, which had approached 30%, dropped precipitously in the developed world. Vaccination of infants againstHaemophilus influenzae(流感嗜血桿菌) type B began in 1988 and led to a dramatic decline in cases shortly thereafter.[106] Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults began in 1977, and in children in 2000, resulting in a similar decline.[107]
 
  • Society and culture 社會與文化
 
Awareness 對肺炎的意識
Due to the relatively low awareness of the disease, 12 November was declared as the annual World Pneumonia Day, a day for concerned citizens and policy makers to take action against the disease, in 2009.[108][109]
 
由於對於肺炎的意識相對於其他疾病較為低落,人們於2009年將12月12日訂為{{le|國際肺炎日|World Pneumonia Day}},用意在喚醒民眾與政策制訂者對肺炎防治發起行動[108,109]。
 
Costs 花費
The global economic cost of community-acquired pneumonia has been estimated at $17 billion annually.[21] Other estimates are considerably higher. In 2012 the estimated aggregate costs of treating pneumonia in the United States were $20 billion;[110] the median cost of a single pneumonia-related hospitalization is over $15,000.[111] According to data released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, average 2012 hospital charges for inpatient treatment of uncomplicated pneumonia in the U.S. were $24,549 and ranged as high as $124,000. The average cost of an emergency room consult for pneumonia was $943 and the average cost for medication was $66.[112] Aggregate annual costs of treating pneumonia in Europe have been estimated at €10 billion.[113]
 
全球每年用於社區型肺炎的經濟花費預估為170億美元[21]。其他類型肺炎的預估花費會更高。2012年,美國治療肺炎的預估總成本為200億美元[110];每個肺炎相關病患住院治療的平均成本則超過了1.5萬美元[111]。根據{{le|聯邦醫療保險和聯邦醫療輔助計劃服務中心|Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services}}所釋出的資料,2012年,美國無併發症肺炎的住院治療費用平均為24,549美元,最高則為12.4萬元。至於在急診室中診察肺炎的平均費用為943美元,治療費則為66美元[112]。在歐洲,治療肺炎的年度總成本預估為100億歐元[113]。
 
 
739 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Taiwania Justo Shao-dian Jhang 739 days ago
現在我們用瘧疾的hackpad整合到中文瘧疾來示範。打開英文條目的原始碼,通常會發現引言每段最前面,會有一個用「<!--」、「-->」包起來的段落,那是說明這段引言的主要描述內容,但用維基語法隱藏起來,所以平常閱讀的時候看不到。請把這行內容翻譯整理到hackpad之中。
 
 

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