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Jean Lin

312 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Jean Lin 312 days ago
Nitrofurantoin(呋喃妥因)
 
Nitrofurantoin, sold under the trade name Macrobid among others, is an antibiotic used to treat bladder infections.[1] It is not effective for kidney infections. It is taken by mouth.[1]
 
Jean undefined 呋喃妥因, 以Macrobid的商品名販售, 其為一種用以治療膀胱感染的抗生素. 對於腎臟感染不具效用, 須以口服方式服用.  
 
Common side effects include nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and headaches. Rarely numbness, lung problems, or liver problems may occur. It should not be used in people with kidney problems.[1] While it looks like it is generally safe during pregnancy it should not be used near delivery.[1][2] It is bacteriostatic instead of being bactericidal.[1]
常見副作用包含噁心, 食慾不振, 腹瀉, 以及頭痛. 少見則可能發生麻木, 肺臟問題, 或是肝功能障礙. 此藥不適合腎臟功能低下患者使用, 即便此藥品對於孕婦看似無害, 但仍不建議在懷孕後期使用, 原理是抑制細菌生長, 而非殺菌. 
 
Nitrofurantoin was first sold in 1953.[3] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[4] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The wholesale cost is 0.005 and 0.46 USD a dose.[5] In the United States it is about 60 USD for 10 days of treatment.[1]
呋喃妥因於1953年上市, 並被列入世界衛生組織基本藥物, 是基本醫療體系中重要的藥物, 已有學名藥出售, 一個劑量的大盤價是0.005到0.46美金, 在美國十天療程約莫是60美金.   
 
312 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Jean Lin 312 days ago
Midazolam(咪氟唑侖)
 
Midazolam, marketed under the trade names Versed among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.[1] It works by making people sleepy, decreasing anxiety, and causing a loss of ability to create new memories.[1] It is also useful for the treatment of seizures.[2] Midazolam can be given by mouth, intravenously, by injection into a muscle, sprayed into the nose, or in the cheek.[1][2]When given intravenously it begins working typically within five minutes, when injected into a muscle it can take fifteen minutes to begin working.[1] Effects last for between one and six hours.[1]
 
Jean undefined 咪氟唑侖, 以Versed為商品名販售, 用以麻醉, 手術前鎮靜, 睡眠困難, 以及精神運動激動. 會使人產生睡意, 降低焦慮, 造成健忘, 也可被使用在癲癇治療上, 此藥可口服, 靜脈注射, 肌肉注射, 噴入鼻腔, 以及塗抹在口腔黏膜. 基本上靜脈注射後約五分鐘開始作用, 而肌肉注射則需十五分鐘, 作用維持在一到六個小時間. 
 
 
Side effects can include irregular breath, low blood pressure, and insomnia.[1] ?????tolerance to its effects may occur and a withdrawal syndrome may follow long-term use.[3] Paradoxical effects, such as increased activity, can occur especially in children and older people.[3] There is evidence of risk when used during pregnancy but no evidence of harm with a single dose during breastfeeding.[4][5] It is of the benzodiazepine class and works through the GABA neurotransmitter.[1]
 
副作用包含呼吸不規律, 低血壓, 失眠等. 在長期使用後, 其作用的耐受性可造成戒斷症狀, 非常規反應, 如造成孩童與老人的好動, 有證據證明此藥對於孕婦具有使用風險, 但目前無證據顯示哺乳時服用單一劑量會對婦女產生傷害, 此藥屬於苯二氮類藥物的一員, 透過GABA神經傳導物質進行作用. 
 
Midazolam first came into use in 1976.[6] It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[7] Midazolam is available as a generic medication and is not very expensive.[4] Wholesale a vial is about 0.35 USD.[8] In many countries, it is a controlled substance.[1]
 
咪氟唑侖在1976年開始被使用, 並被列入世界衛生組織基本藥物, 是基本醫療體系中重要的藥物, 已有學名藥出售, 且售價不高, 一個劑量的大盤價是0.35美金, 在諸多國家中是管制藥物.  
 

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