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黃瑞霖

134 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by 黃瑞霖 134 days ago
'''沙奎那維'''({{lang|en|saquinavir}}商品名'''Invirase'''和'''Fortovase''',為一種[[抗反轉錄病毒藥物]],可與其他藥物合併治療[[愛滋病]][1]。通常會與{{le|ritonavir}}或[[快利佳]]合併使用,該藥屬於口服藥物[1]
 
黃瑞霖 常見副作用包和惡心、嘔吐、腹瀉,以及疲憊。嚴重副作用則包含[[長QT症]]、{{le|心阻斷|Heart block}}、[[高脂血症]],以及肝臟問題。妊娠期間用藥目前顯示安全。本藥物屬於[[蛋白酶抑制劑]],可抑制{{le|HIV蛋白酶|HIV protease}}的作用[1]。
 
Saquinavir was first sold in 1995.[2] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines(世界卫生组织基本药物标准清单), the most important medication needed in a basic health system.[3] As of 2015 it is not available as a generic medication(通用名药物) and is expensive.[4] The wholesale cost is about 4.50 USD per day.[5]
 
奎那維於1995年首次上市[2],並列名於[[世界卫生组织基本药物标准清单]]之中,為基礎公衛體系必備藥物之一[3]。本品迄今仍非[[學名藥]],因此價格相當昂貴[4],一日劑量的批發價約為4.50美金左右[5]。
 
60 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Chris Chang , 黃瑞霖 60 days ago
  • Function 機能
The pudendal nerve has both motor and sensory functions. It does not carry parasympathetic fibers, but does carry sympathetic fibers.[9]:1738
 
Chris C 陰部神經具有運動及感覺二種機能,陰部神經有交感神經的神經纖維,沒有[[副交感神經]]的纖維[9]:1738。
 
The pudendal nerve supplies sensation to the penis in males and the clitoris in females, through the branches dorsal nerve of penis anddorsal nerve of clitoris. The posterior scrotum in males and the labia in females are also supplied, via the posterior scrotal nerves(males) or posterior labial nerves (females). The pudendal nerve is one of several nerves supplying sensation to these areas.[11]Branches also supply sensation to the anal canal.[6]:8 By providing sensation to the penis and the clitoris, the pudendal nerve is responsible for the afferent component of penile erection and clitoral erection.[12] :147 It is also responsible for ejaculation.[13]
Branches also innervate muscles of the perineum and pelvic floor; namely the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles,[11] thelevator ani muscle (including the Iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus, puborectalis and either pubovaginalis in females or pubourethralis in males),[10]:422[14] the external anal sphincter (via the inferior anal branch),[6]:7 and male or female external urethral sphincter.[10]:424–425
黃瑞霖 男性的陰部神經會分出{{le|陰莖背神經|dorsal nerve of penis}}支配[[陰莖]]的感覺,女性則會分出{{le|陰蒂背神經|dorsal nerve of clitoris}}支配[[陰蒂]]感覺[10]:422。
 
As it functions to innervate the External Urethral Sphincter it is responsible for the tone of the sphincter mediated via acetylcholine release. This means that during periods of increased acetylcholine release the skeletal muscle in the external urethral sphincter contracts, causing urinary retention. Whereas in periods of decreased acetylcholine release the skeletal muscle in the external urethral sphincter relaxes, allowing voiding of the bladder to occur.[15] (Clarification: Unlike the internal sphincter muscle, the external sphincter is made of skeletal muscle, therefore it is under voluntary control of the somatic nervous system.)
 
12 days ago
14 days ago
14 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by 黃瑞霖 14 days ago
'''副傷寒'''({{lang|en|paratyphoid fever}})是一種由{{lang|en|腸道沙門氏菌亞種Ⅰ型|Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica|腸道沙門氏菌}}引起的疾病,目前已知有三種[[血清型]]可造成該疾病[1]。症狀與[[傷寒]]相當類似,且通常發生於接觸細菌後的6至30天[1][2]。通常會逐漸地在幾天內發展出高燒,其他像是感到虛弱、沒有食慾以及頭痛也都相當常見[1]。有些人會在皮膚上表現出玫瑰色的紅斑[3]。如果沒有接受治療,症狀將持續數周甚至數月[1]。有部分的人可能會攜帶著細菌卻不會遭受感染,即便如此,還是具備傳染其他人的能力[2]。傷寒和副傷寒的嚴重度相似[2],兩者所造成的熱病皆屬於腸熱[4]。
 
19 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by 黃瑞霖 19 days ago
表皮灼傷又稱為一級灼傷。皮膚呈現紅色 但沒有水泡,疼痛通常持續三天[3][4] 。當灼傷的範圍傷及表皮下方皮層,這情況稱為部分皮層灼傷或二級灼傷。普遍可見水泡且非常疼痛,需要八星期痊愈,並可能留下疤痕。全層灼傷或三級灼傷是指每層皮膚均受傷。大多數情況下,患者不會感受到痛楚,其灼傷範圍變硬,不會自行痊愈。四級灼傷指更深層組織受創,如肌肉骨骼受傷[3]。灼傷部位變黑而一般需要被移除[3][5]
 

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