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463 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Chris Cheng-Hui Chang 463 days ago
本 Hackpad 是臺灣維基媒體社群討論聚會舉辦計畫、維基百科等相關計畫編寫協作討論、大型臺灣維基媒體計畫相關活動舉辦的討論集中區。 

4 hours ago
Unfiled. Edited by Aaron Kosatern 4 hours ago
常見副作用包和心、嘔吐、腹瀉,以及疲憊。嚴重副作用則包含[[長QT症]]、{{le|心阻斷|Heart block}}、[[高脂血症]],以及肝臟問題。妊娠期間用藥目前顯示安全。本藥物屬於[[蛋白酶抑制劑]],可抑制{{le|HIV蛋白酶|HIV protease}}的作用[1]。
 
13 hours ago
Unfiled. Edited by 上官良治 13 hours ago
跟Adrian Adatz(加拿大Steward)、Delphine(以色列專案經理)、Michal(以色列會長)吃早餐
 
2 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 2 days ago
Aaron K <!-- 定義與症狀 -->
'''角膜刮傷''' 係指[[眼睛]]的[[角膜]] 表面的刮傷<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=2016-11-06|title=Corneal Abrasion |publisher=National Eye Institute|url=https://nei.nih.gov/faqs/cornea-corneal-abrasion|website=nei.nih.gov}}</ref>,症狀包含疼痛、紅腫、[[light sensitivity(對光敏感)]]、眼睛內有[[異物]]感<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Most people recover completely within three days.<ref name=Fah2015/>
 
<!-- Cause and diagnosis -->
Most cases are due to minor trauma to the eye such as that which can occur with [[contact lens]] use or from fingernails.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> About 25% of cases occur at work.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Diagnosis is often by [[slit lamp]] examination after [[fluorescein dye]] has been applied.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> More significant injuries like a corneal ulcer, [[globe rupture]], [[recurrent erosion syndrome]], and a [[foreign body]] within the eye should be ruled out.<ref name=Fah2015>{{cite journal|first1=Faheem|last1=Ahmed|first2=Robert James|last2=House|first3=Brad Hal|last3=Feldman|title=Corneal Abrasions and Corneal Foreign Bodies|journal=Primary Care|date=1 September 2015|issn=1558-299X|pages=363–375|volume=42|issue=3|pmid=26319343|doi=10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.004}}</ref>
 
<!-- 成因與診斷 -->
角膜刮傷的大部分病例,是因為以手指戴上[[隱形眼鏡]]時造成眼睛的微小創傷<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> 大約四分之一的病例是在工作時受傷的<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->。醫生診斷時會用[[螢光素]]染色後,使用[[裂隙燈]]來照<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->。更嚴重的創傷像是角膜潰瘍、[[globe rupture(眼球破裂)]]、[[recurrent erosion syndrome]]以及眼內有[[異物]]都不同於角膜刮傷。<ref name=Fah2015>{{cite journal|first1=Faheem|last1=Ahmed|first2=Robert James|last2=House|first3=Brad Hal|last3=Feldman|title=Corneal Abrasions and Corneal Foreign Bodies|journal=Primary Care|date=1 September 2015|issn=1558-299X|pages=363–375|volume=42|issue=3|pmid=26319343|doi=10.1016/j.pop.2015.05.004}}</ref>
 
<!-- Prevention and treatment -->
Prevention includes the use of [[eye protection]].<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Treatment is typically with [[antibiotic]] ointment.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> In those who wear contact lenses a [[fluoroquinolone]] antibiotic is often recommended.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> [[Paracetamol]] (acetaminophen), [[NSAIDs]], and eye drops such as [[cyclopentolate]] that [[paralysis the pupil]] can help with pain.<ref name=Fah2015/> Evidence does not support the usefulness of [[eye patching]] for those with simple abrasions.<ref name=Lim2016>{{cite journal|last1=Lim|first1=CH|last2=Turner|first2=A|last3=Lim|first3=BX|title=Patching for corneal abrasion.|journal=The Cochrane database of systematic reviews|date=26 July 2016|volume=7|pages=CD004764|pmid=27457359}}</ref> 
 
<!-- 預防與治療-->
預防方式包含使用[[eye protection(眼部保護措施)]]<ref  name=Fah2015/> -->,治療方式通常是使用 [[抗生素]]軟膏<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> -->,通常會建議隱形眼鏡的使用者使用[[fluoroquinolone(喹諾酮)]]抗生素<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> [[Paracetamol]]  (acetaminophen普除通錠)[[NSAIDs(非類固醇消炎止痛藥)]], and eye drops such as [[cyclopentolate]]  that [[paralysis the pupil]] can help with pain.<ref  name=Fah2015/> Evidence does not support the usefulness of [[eye  patching]] for those with simple abrasions.<ref  name=Lim2016>{{cite  journal|last1=Lim|first1=CH|last2=Turner|first2=A|last3=Lim|first3=BX|title=Patching  for corneal abrasion.|journal=The Cochrane database of systematic  reviews|date=26 July  2016|volume=7|pages=CD004764|pmid=27457359}}</ref> 
 
<!-- Prevention and treatment -->
Prevention includes the use of [[eye protection]].<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> Treatment is typically with [[antibiotic]] ointment.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> In those who wear contact lenses a [[fluoroquinolone]] antibiotic is often recommended.<!-- <ref name=Fah2015/> --> [[Paracetamol]] (acetaminophen), [[NSAIDs]], and eye drops such as [[cyclopentolate]] that [[paralysis the pupil]] can help with pain.<ref name=Fah2015/> Evidence does not support the usefulness of [[eye patching]] for those with simple abrasions.<ref name=Lim2016>{{cite journal|last1=Lim|first1=CH|last2=Turner|first2=A|last3=Lim|first3=BX|title=Patching for corneal abrasion.|journal=The Cochrane database of systematic reviews|date=26 July 2016|volume=7|pages=CD004764|pmid=27457359}}</ref> 
 
 
 
 
2 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 2 days ago
Krystal H 維他命C,又稱抗壞血酸 (ascorbic acid) 或 L-抗壞血酸 (L-ascorbic acid),是一種存在於食物中的維他命,可作為[[營養補充品]];維他命C可作補充劑用以預防或治療[[壞血病]][1],目前並無證據顯示可預防感冒[2][3]。維他命C可藉由口服或注射來攝取。[1]
 
It is generally well tolerated.[1] Large doses may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.[3][1] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[4]Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue.[1] Foods that contain vitamin C include citrus fruit, tomatoes, and potatoes.[2]
 
通常維他命C的耐受性很好[1],大劑量服用可能導致腸胃不適、頭痛、睡眠困難以及肌膚泛紅[3][1]。[[懷孕]]期間攝取正常劑量通常是安全無虞的[4],維他命C係為一種[[essential nutrient (基本營養)]]有助於[[組織]]修復[1],含有維他命C的食物包含[[柑橘類水果]]、[[番茄]]以及[[馬鈴薯]]。[2]
 
Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and first made in 1933.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[6] Vitamin C is avaliable as a generic medication and over the counter.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.19 to 0.54 USD per month.[7] In some countries ascorbic acid may be added to foods such as breakfast cereal.[2]
 
維他命C最早發現於1912年,在1928年首次被分離出來,在1933年首次被製造出來[5],於[[世界衛生組織基本藥物標準清單]]上名列有案,是建立[[照護系統]]時相當重要的必備基礎藥物之一[6]。維他命C已經是[[通用名藥物]],也是[[成藥]][1]。在[[發展中國家]]的批發價約在每月0.19到0.54美元之間[7],有些國家將抗壞血酸加入食物,像是[[營養麥片]]。[2]
 
9 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Chris Chang 9 days ago
  • Clinical significance (已移動到維基百科)
麻醉/Anesthesia (已移動到維基百科)
 
損傷 Damage (已移動到維基百科) 
 
影像 Imaging (已移動到維基百科)
 
9 days ago
Unfiled. Edited by Krystal H.C. 9 days ago
Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder that affects many parts of the body.[4] Facial features frequently include a broad forehead, short nose, and full cheeks, an appearance which has been described as "elfin".[4][3] Mild to moderate intellectual disability with particular problems with visual spatial tasks such as drawing and less problems with language are typical.[4] Those affected often have an outgoing personality and interact readily with strangers.[4][3] Problems with teeth, heart problems, especially supravalvular aortic stenosis, and periods of high blood calcium are common.[4][2]
 
Krystal H 威廉氏症候群(Williams syndrome, 簡稱WS),係指一種對身體各部位皆有影響的[[發展障礙]][4],面部常見特徵包含寬額頭、短鼻子、大範圍的笑肌,外型常被形容為像 "elfin矮人"[4][3]。典型的輕度到中度[[智能障礙]]伴隨有[[visual spatial tasks(空間視覺化能力)]]的特定問題,如繪畫,對話上的問題相對較少[4],患者常見[[個性]]外向,與陌生人的互動極快[4][3],威廉氏症候群患者常見有牙齒、[[心血管疾病]],尤其是[[supravalvular aortic stenosis(主動脈瓣上狹窄)]]及[[high blood calcium(高血鈣)]]期等疾患[4][2]
 
Williams syndrome is caused by a genetic problem, specifically a deletion of about 27 genes from the long arm of chromosome 7.[3][4] Typically this occurs as a random event during the formation of the egg or sperm from which a person develops. In a small number of cases it is inherited from an affected parents in an autosomal dominant manner. The different characteristic features have been linked to the loss of specific genes.[4] The diagnosis is typically suspected based on symptoms and confirmed by genetic testing.[2]
 
威廉氏症候群是一種[[genetic problem(遺傳疾患)]],尤其是因為[[7號染色體]]的長臂從27對染色體中被[[刪除(遺傳學]])[3][4]而發生,此狀況通常是卵子或精子在形成人時的發生的偶發事件;在少數病例中,威廉氏症候群是[[遺傳]]自[[顯性]]患病的父母;患者的特殊面部特徵常被認為是缺失了特定的[[基因]][4],通常確診是基於症狀引起懷疑,並透過[[基因檢測]]以確認患病。[2]
 
Treatment includes special education programs and various types of therapy. Surgery may be done to correct heart problems. Dietary changes or medications may be required for high blood calcium.[2] The syndrome was first described in 1961 by New Zealander John C. P. Williams.[5][6] Williams syndrome affects between 1 in 7,500 to 1 in 20,000 people at birth.[3] Life expectancy is less than that of the general population mostly due to the increased rates of heart disease.[7]
 
治療方式包含[[特殊教育]]及各種形式的[[療法]],手術僅被用於治療心臟疾病,當患者有高血鈣時才需要改變飲食或施以藥物治療[2]。威廉氏症候群的症狀首見於出現紐西蘭心臟學家之口[5][6],平均在7500到20000位新生兒裡會出現一位患者[3],患者的[[預期壽命]]較一般人為短,是因為心血管疾病的風險增加之故。[7]
 

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